출장부르는법
  • 나주익산 모텔 가격
  • 군산출장샵
  • 카지노사이트
  • 창녕유흥인 토렌트
  • 나주출장안마┾예약⇊나주마사지 모음[나주나주 안마방]⇔〖나주출장전화번호〗✄나주jav 마사지☼나주y존 마사지❤나주일본야동 마사지1나주휘성 안마방❀나주삼산동 출장

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    카지노사이트
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    나주출장안마チ24시출장샵§나주마사지 모음[나주안마방 시간]ア〖나주일본에서 한국녀섭외 마사지〗█나주강릉 마사지♪나주팔 마사지♣나주속초 마사지❤나주사천 안마방⇃나주혼자 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 서울 병점 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    나주출장안마↾예약❈나주마사지 모음[나주아침에 안마방]┲〖나주경마 시간〗✲나주눈 커지는 마사지▩나주마사지 기계⊿나주백석동 마사지♫나주콧대 마사지 효과❂나주인덕원 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    나주출장안마☼출장부르는법☁나주마사지 모음[나주출장대행]▷〖나주일본 마사지〗√나주타이마사지 섹스»나주민락동 마사지⇩나주여성전용 마사지♐나주해피 출장유나주창동 안마방

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 진주출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    나주출장안마♦24시출장샵↺나주마사지 모음[나주마사지 샵]↟〖나주부산 모텔 아가씨〗エ나주상인동 안마방⇖나주천안 출장◐나주연산동 안마방フ나주타이 마사지 썰❤나주강서구 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 평창상남동 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    나주출장안마▥출장부르는법♨나주마사지 모음[나주유선 마사지]┗〖나주순천 타이 마사지〗⇞나주광주 여관ム나주안마방 초이스 토렌트☎나주강아지 마사지☢나주마사지 움짤⇚나주서양 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 원주출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    나주출장안마나주안마방 몰카 tumblr

  • 의령동대구역 모텔
  • 나주고양이 마사지
  • 나주출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    나주출장안마♪ 예약╙나주마사지 모음[나주서귀포 안마방]♥〖나주상무지구 마사지〗┡나주아로마 마사지 팬티➸나주안마방 오일↛나주스포츠마사지▪나주잇몸 마사지ェ나주안마방 첫경험

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 목포마사지 기획물 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 진주출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    안양진주 가격 대전출장안마 청주연산동 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 바카라사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    나주출장안마♨예약금없는출장샵⇀나주마사지 모음[나주안마방 번호]│〖나주마사지 남친〗╣나주육덕 마사지┫나주산본 마사지囍나주경포대 안마방マ나주천안역 여관↨나주불광동 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 성주홍대 안마방 위치 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    나주출장안마╣출장부르는법┌나주마사지 모음[나주부산 안마방 가격]☾〖나주강남 마사지〗チ나주출장서비스☏나주안마방 몰카 torrent✕나주천호동 안마방✚나주부산 마사지 추천⇞나주대학동 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 광주출장안마 .

    울산토렌트 안마방
    단양정선 사북 마사지 바카라사이트 고창세부 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    나주출장안마✌예약♫나주마사지 모음[나주콜걸 후기]☭〖나주새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트〗▨나주이천 마사지☲나주구미 여관✙나주안마방 정보▨나주허리 마사지↕나주검암 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. swarovskiwholesalepriceonsale.top .

    나주출장안마☭출장부르는법╔나주마사지 모음[나주속초 모텔 가격]┟〖나주출장걸〗✓나주일반인 마사지◊나주안마방 빨리싸면♪나주안마사 자격증⇆나주찌라시 썰ワ나주안마방 nf 뜻

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 창원출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 장수안마방 무한 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    나주출장안마♦예약オ나주마사지 모음[나주경산 마사지]ο〖나주임산부 마사지〗☞나주창동 안마방●나주구의동 안마방ル나주교대 마사지⇂나주안마방 대전✂나주전국 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    나주출장안마▶예약금없는출장샵⇅나주마사지 모음[나주안마방 수면실]▣〖나주이천 마사지〗♮나주속초 여관┡나주마포구 안마방⇈나주시흥동 안마방⇋나주안마방 초이스.mp4⇟나주덕천동 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 군산포항 마사지 후기 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The dr-choi.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 수원출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 영덕안마방 비아그라 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 창원출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    나주출장안마☼24시출장샵チ나주마사지 모음[나주안마방 cctv]♕〖나주타이 마사지 꿀팁〗◊나주중랑구 마사지⊙나주모텔 전화◇나주박중현 안마방▷나주남자 전립선 마사지│나주안마방 항문

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 원주출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 포항출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 전주출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    나주출장안마-24시출장샵▦나주마사지 모음[나주검빛 경마 검색]♩〖나주안마방 아이돌〗◇나주선릉 안마방♦나주대구 모텔┝나주앙헬레스 마사지♭나주강릉 모텔 추천♣나주광명시 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    대구안마방 검색
    카지노사이트 광주국 안마방 초이스 창원출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    나주출장안마☆24시출장샵▶나주마사지 모음[나주jav 마사지]エ〖나주안마방 똥꼬〗➴나주출장오피▨나주아스카 키라라 마사지☞나주손목 마사지↹나주유두 마사지▫나주크라운제이 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.나주출장안마나주송원장 마사지☪나주천안 안마♛〖나주호치민 마사지〗나주성내동 안마방μ나주강남역 안마방☺나주마사지 핸플↦나주정왕동 안마방♔webdesigners.xyz출장부르는법나주진영 안마방↟나주부천 안마방♕《나주일산 여관》나주출장샵후기☼나주나트랑 마사지┵나주검단 마사지☐나주공유 마사지✿나주출장안마광명안마방 스타킹나주동해 마사지▩나주별내 마사지⇔{나주남양주 안마방}나주여성 출장 마사지❉나주신사역 안마방❣나주어깨 마사지✘나주마사지 방법▥나주답십리 마사지♨나주대구 사우나 마사지♦[나주울산 안마방 추천]나주마사지 토렌토▨나주구로디지털단지 안마방↿나주수유 안마방⊙나주순천 안마방╬나주안마방 토렌트↖나주광주 스타 안마방┹〖나주연수구 안마방〗나주인계동 안마방★나주op➹나주엉덩이 마사지┙나주홍대 안마방 위치¤나주국노↺나주태국마사지 가격♧〔나주op〕나주안마방 모음유나주논현 안마방➚나주강서 마사지◑나주남양주 마사지━24시출장샵고양다방 티켓 썰예약금없는출장샵나주출장대행↽나주마사지 강간☇【나주제주 연동 마사지】나주홍대 안마방 위치█나주상록수 안마방ε나주안마방 번호↚나주거제 마사지♧나주출장안마나주출장안마원주출장샵나주출장 오피나주구월동 마사지나주태국 마사지 토렌트나주도쿄 마사지나주출장안마나주천안역 여관┗나주처음 안마방╅〈나주뒷목 마사지〉나주일본 안마방▶나주마사지 3만원┲나주사이판 마사지⇣나주신천 안마방☴부산마사지 하다가

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

    Topics